Bioceramic ceramics used in oral implants are mainly divided into bioactive ceramics
and bioinert ceramics. Bioactive ceramics include hydroxyapatite ceramics, bioactive glass ceramics, and calcium phosphate glass ceramics.
This kind of material has good biocompatibility and is very similar to the inorganic components in human bone tissue. When it is implanted in living bone tissue, it can organically bind to bone tissue and participate in bone tissue metabolism to promote bone tissue growth. Bioinert ceramics mainly refer to single crystal alumina, etc.. This type of material has large strength and good stability. There is basically no significant chemical change in the body and it can form a stable interface with the implant tissue.
At present, the raw materials of several widely used dental implant systems are basically pure titanium or titanium alloy. Titanium is easily formed on the surface as an oxide film TiO2, which is an inert interface state. The presence of this oxide layer acts as a conversion layer between organic tissues and inorganic implants.
Tengvell et al. believe that Ding Tio2 can partially form a TiooH Matrix, which may inhibit the production of superoxide products in inflammation and thus prevent the release of hydroxide ions, so that titanium implants remain stable in the implanted tissue. compatible relationship.
The mechanical strength of titanium metal is high, and its elastic modulus is far from that of natural bone tissue. Therefore, due consideration should be given to the design of artificial implant teeth to reduce stress concentration at the interface. Cobalt-chromium alloys are commonly used in artificial hip joints due to their easy processing and good corrosion resistance.
Carbon materials have good biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and their elastic modulus is similar to that of bone tissue. However, due to the influence of material color, their use is limited.
It mainly includes acrylate, polytetrafluoroethylene, polysulfone, etc.. Polymer materials are extremely unstable in the microenvironment of the body. Many components decompose and degrade, affecting the reaction of local tissue cells, and even systemic reactions. In the experiment, it was observed that local histological sections showed that there were a large number of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and wrapped in thicker fiber membranes.
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